A few years ago, almost daily television reports on the ‘waste crisis’ in the Campania, the region of Naples, showed vividly that waste management can become a rather nightmarish undertaking. Is this an Italian speciality or is it also more in general a complex and difficult subject? For many years already waste management is an activity regulated by European law. This book analyses the salient features of the relevant law by critically assessing the relevant instruments and the jurisprudence of both the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. The Neapolitan waste crisis is used as a major point of reference.